Hemorrhoids / Piles

Hemorrhoid / Piles -Treatments

Hemorrhoids / Piles

WHAT ARE HEMORRHOIDS ?

It is important to note that all people have hemorrhoidal tissue as part of their normal anatomy. Only in a minority of people do hemorrhoids become enlarged or otherwise symptomatic. Hemorrhoidal tissue lies within the anal canal and perianal area and consists of blood vessels, connective tissue, and a small amount of muscle.
There are two main types of hemorrhoids : internal and external. Internal hemorrhoids are covered with a lining called mucosa that is not sensitive to touch, pain, stretch, or temperature, while external hemorrhoids are covered by skin that is very sensitive. When problems develop, these two types of hemorrhoids can have very different symptoms and treatments.
HEMORRHOIDS

SYMPTOMS

Roughly 5% of people will develop symptoms attributable to their hemorrhoids and only a small fraction of those patients will require surgical treatment. Patients may experience symptoms caused by either internal or external hemorrhoids or both.
IN OUR COMMUNITY ANY ILLNESS OR DISCOMFORT AT ANAL REGION IS LABELED AS PILES/HAEMORRHOIDS BY THE PATIENT.
The other very common illnesses are FISSURE IN ANO, PERIANAL ABSCESS FISTULA IN ANO. Bleeding per rectum can be a warning sign of rectal cancer.

INTERNAL HEMORRHOIDS

Painless rectal bleeding or prolapse of anal tissue is often associated with symptomatic internal hemorrhoids. Prolapse is hemorrhoidal tissue coming from the inside that can often be felt on the outside of the anus when having a bowel movement. This tissue often goes back inside spontaneously or can be pushed back internally by the patient. The symptoms tend to progress slowly over a long time and are often intermittent.
Internal hemorrhoids are classified by their degree of prolapse, which helps determine management :
Grade One : No prolapse
Grade Two : Prolapse that goes back in on its own
Grade Three : Prolapse that must be pushed back in by the patient
Grade Four : Prolapse that cannot be pushed back in by the patient (often very painful)
Bleeding attributed to internal hemorrhoids is usually bright red and can be quite brisk. Not all patients with symptomatic internal hemorrhoids will have significant bleeding. Instead, the prolapse may be the main or only symptom. Prolapsing tissue may result in significant irritation and itching around the anus. Patients may also complain of mucus discharge, difficulty with cleaning themselves after defecation, or a sense that their stool is “stuck” at the anus. Patients without significant symptoms from internal hemorrhoids do not require treatment based on their appearance alone.

EXTERNAL HEMORRHOIDS

Symptomatic external hemorrhoids often present as a reddish-bluish-colored painful lump just outside the anus and they tend to occur spontaneously and may have been preceded by an unusual amount of strain while passing the stools. The skin overlying the outside of the anus is usually firmly attached to the underlying tissues. If a blood clot or thrombosis develops in this tightly held area, it causes severe pain to the patient.. The pain is usually constant. Occasionally the elevated pressure in the thrombosed external hemorrhoid results in the breakdown of the overlying skin and the clotted blood begins leaking out. Patients may also complain of intermittent swelling, pressure, and discomfort, related to external hemorrhoids which are not thrombosed.

ANAL SKIN TAGS

Patients often complain of painless, soft tissue felt on the outside of the anus. These can be the residual effect of a previous problem with external hemorrhoids. The blood clot stretches out the overlying skin and remains stretched out after the blood clot is absorbed by the body, thereby leaving a skin tag. Other times, patients will have skin tags without an obvious preceding event. Skin tags will occasionally bother patients by interfering with their ability to clean the anus following a BM, while others just don’t like the way they look. Usually, nothing is done to treat them beyond reassurance. However, surgical removal is occasionally considered.

WHAT CAUSES SYMTOMATIC HEMORRHOIDS ?

The majority of factors thought to produce symptomatic hemorrhoids are associated with increased pressure within the abdomen that gets transmitted to the anal region. Some of these factors include: straining when having a bowel movement, constipation, diarrhea, pregnancy, and irregular bowel patterns. It seems that, over time, these factors may contribute to the prolapse of internal hemorrhoidal tissue or thrombosis of external hemorrhoidal tissue.

EXAMINATION

After obtaining a careful history regarding your symptoms and your personal and family medical history, you will need to perform an examination in the consulting room. This usually consists of careful inspection of the outside of the anus, placement of a finger through the anus into the rectum (digital examination), and placement of a finger-sized instrument through the anus to allow visual inspection of the hemorrhoidal tissue (anoscopy). Also, your doctor may want to look even further upstream into the colon to rule out polyps, cancers, and other causes of bleeding.
As a policy of our hospital, we do a routine sigmoidoscopy for hemorrhoid patients.
NON-SURGICAL TREATMENT OF INTERNAL HEMORRHOIDS
There is a wide variety of treatment options available for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids depending upon their grade (see above discussion) and the severity of your symptoms. Often, adherence to the dietary/lifestyle changes detailed below will relieve your symptoms. However, if you fail to respond to these changes alone, or if your symptoms are severe enough at the outset, there are a number of office-based and surgical procedures available to alleviate your symptoms.
DIETARY / LIFESTYLE CHANGES
The cornerstone of therapy, regardless of whether surgery is needed or not, is dietary and lifestyle change. The main changes consist of increasing your dietary fiber, taking a fiber supplement, getting plenty of fluids by mouth, and exercising. This is all designed to regulate, your bowel movements. The goal is to avoid both very hard stools and diarrhea, while achieving a soft, bulky, easily cleaned type of stool. This type of stool seems to be the best kind to prevent anal problems of almost all kinds.
It is usually recommended to achieve 20-35 grams of fiber per day in the diet, including plenty of fruits and vegetables. Most people can benefit from taking a fiber supplement one to two times daily. These supplements are available in powder, chewable, and capsule/tablet forms.
Also important is adequate fluid (preferably water) consumption, often considered 8-10 glasses daily.

OFFICE-BASED THERAPIES FOR INTERNAL HEMORRHOIDS

The most commonly used office procedures are rubber band ligation, infrared coagulation, and sclerotherapy. These treatment options are for internal hemorrhoids only and do not apply to external hemorrhoids.
RUBBER BAND LIGATION

Rubber band ligation can be used for Grades 1, 2, and some Grade 3 internal hemorrhoids. It is an extension of the anoscopic examination. by putting device inside pull up the internal hemorrhoidal tissue and place a rubber band at its base. The band acts to cut off hemorrhoid’s blood supply and it falls off (with the band) at roughly 5-7 days, at which time you may notice a small amount of bleeding. If you are taking blood thinners such as aspirin clopidrogyl you may not be a candidate for this procedure. You may require anywhere from one to three rubber bands per visit and this may require several short visits to achieve relief of your symptoms, but is not associated with any significant recovery time for most people. The rubber band can be associated with a dull ache or feeling of pressure lasting 1-3 days that is usually well-treated with Ibuprofen. Upon completion of your banding session(s), you likely will not need further treatment, provided you continue the previously described dietary and lifestyle changes. If your symptoms return, repeat banding certainly can be considered. Hemorrhoidectomy is always an option if significant progress is not made with banding. Complications are very uncommon but may include bleeding, pain, and infection,
INFRARED PHOTOCOAGULATION
Infrared coagulation (IRC) is another office-base procedure, for Grades 1 and 2 and occasional Grade 3 internal hemorrhoids, which can be performed during anoscopy. IRC utilizes infrared radiation generated by a small light that is applied to the hemorrhoidal tissue. This energy is converted to heat and causes the hemorrhoidal tissue to become inflamed, slough off, and scar down, thereby eliminating this excess tissue. This procedure is usually quick, painless, has few complications, but may take several short sessions to achieve relief of symptoms.

SCLEROTHERAPY

Sclerotherapy is another office-based treatment for Grades 1 and 2 internal hemorrhoids. It involves the injection of chemical irritants into the hemorrhoids, resulting in scarring and shrinkage by reducing the blood vessels present in the hemorrhoidal tissues. Sclerotherapy is similarly quick, often painless, has few complications, and may take several short sessions to achieve relief of symptoms.

OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF HEMORRHOIDS

Fewer than 10% of all patients evaluated with symptomatic hemorrhoids will require surgical management. Most patients respond to non-operative treatment and do not require a surgical procedure. Hemorrhoidectomy, or surgical removal of the hemorrhoidal tissue, may be considered if a patient presents with symptomatic large external hemorrhoids, combined internal and external hemorrhoids, and/or grade 3-4 prolapse. Hemorrhoidectomy is highly effective in achieving relief of symptoms and it is uncommon to have any significant recurrence. However, it also causes much more pain and disability than office procedures and has somewhat more complications.
Hemorrhoidectomy may be done using a variety of different techniques and instruments to remove the hemorrhoids and the particular technique is usually chosen based on a particular surgeon’s preference. In basic terms, the excess hemorrhoidal tissue is removed and the resultant wound may be closed or left open. Hemorrhoidectomy is performed in an operating room and may be done while you’re under anesthesia- under a spinal block
In an attempt to avoid some of the postoperative pain associated with hemorrhoidectomy, a more recently developed option has emerged, called a stapled hemorrhoidopexy (sometimes inaccurately referred to as. The procedure involves a circular stapling device that removes some of the tissue located above hemorrhoids having no pain sensations, thereby pulling the hemorrhoids upward, returning the problematic hemorrhoidal tissue to its normal position, and staples this tissue up into place. Most of all of the staples later fall out over time. Studies comparing stapled hemorrhoidectomy to standard hemorrhoidectomy have found it to be equally safe and associated with a shorter time to full recovery. Long term recurrence rates appear to be higher than with hemorrhoidectomy, and this operation is not effective for treating large external hemorrhoids. All operative procedures for hemorrhoidal disease carry their own set of risks and benefits and the ultimate choice of procedure must be made between you and your surgeon.

LASER TREATMENT OF HEMORRHOIDS

The pile mass/Haemrrhoidal tissue is ablated with the precision of LESER technology resulting in painless procedure & fastest recovery,Patient may experience discomfort for 2 to 3 days. but no pain & can start working at the earliest.

POSTOPERATIVE COURSE

Lifestyle modifications, a high fiber diet. are the mainstream of the treatment, Sitting in a bath (sitz bath) 2–3 times daily for 10-15 minutes per time in warm water up to your lower abdomen may make you more comfortable. Occasionally, patients will have difficulty urinating after anorectal surgery. If you are unable to void, try urinating in the tub during a sitz bath. If that does not work, placement of a catheter in your bladder.
Moving your bowels after hemorrhoid surgery is always a concern for patients. Most patients do not take full diet out of fear, in fact, that may cause hard stools & increase discomfort. Little amount of bleeding is not a concern after initial bowel movements.

SUMMARY

The treatment of hemorrhoids is radically changed. Recovery is rapid & less pain rather than discomfort after LASER surgery.
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